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Terminologies

Term Definition
Acetone Highly flammable hydrocarbon liquid commonly used as a carrier for solvent based coating materials. Read the MSDS of Acetone prior to use.
Acid Etching Application of diluted acids such as hydrochloric or phosphoric acid to clean or prole a concrete floor to enhance surface porosity, remove oil and grimes in preparation for coating application. SHIMICOAT recommend abrasive blasting/grinding for surface preparation as the first option. Acid wash is a less effective alternative Must be neutralised and rinsed prior to nal coating application.
Acrylic Resin A hydrocarbon synthetic resin made by polomerization of acrylate compounds. it dries transparent with strong bonding to most surfaces such as wool, laminate and timber. It is resistant to UV radiation as well as to many chemicals such as alcohol, acids, bleach, alkalis and mineral oils , without discoloration, and moisture barrier properties.
Acrylic Sealer Water or Solvent based single-component resin capable of allowing moisture penetration, scratch more easily than others, and provide moderate stain protection. Solvent based version is a Flammable liquid and most commonly used by tradies for exposed aggregates and many other outdoor surfaces.
Adhesion Or Bonding of one material to stick to another. Coating materials adhear to porous surfaces strongly and on-substrate or intercoat adhesion can be affected by the condition of the surface. The surface should allow coating materials and well prepared prior to application.
Aging Aging or Life expectancy of coating materials may vary at different weathering and environmental conditions. Certain properties of coating materials may deteriorate under certain conditons such as Under Diect Sunlight..
Air Bubbles Common problem that can easily be avoided by use of the correct product and proper surface preparation process. Air Bubbles are trappe air or gases below the drived surface coating materials and need to be released prior to being cured. Air Bubbles created by coating materials when drying too fast due to extreme temperatues, surface prepared inadequataly or materials applied too thick or incorrect.
Alkaline Salts Most concretes are contains alkalinity such as Lime or Calcium Hydroxide. Once on surface, they may react with atmospheric Carbon Dioxide to produce white Alkaline Salts, carried to the surface of a concrete sub-floor by moisture. There is no guarantee any treatment will keep the surface free of alkali but acid wash (Diluted Hydrochoric Acid) followed by wash and flush using any general purpase detergetn or soda water (Sodium Carbonate/Sodium Bicarbonate) will neutralize the surface and lower the alkalinity.
Alligatoring Aslo know as orange peel or fish eye effect, caused by intercoat incompatibility. Imcomatibility of a newly applied coating with an existing surfae coating materials or too thick application of sealer may result in alligatoring effect.
Ambient Temperature Ambient air, amient water or ambient soil refers to sorrounding environment. Ambient temperature refers to the room and soroundng temperature.
Basecoat First layer, the primer or undercoat is applied prior to main coat application. Basecoat has certain properties to penetrate deep into the susbstrate with premium adhesion ability to bond to the topcoat.
Blister Swell or raised spot on the surface can be caused by moisture build-up underneath coating materials and pushing the surface to shape a blister. Blisters occuring soon aftern installation (a few hours) are usually due to the concentration of trapped air. Old Blsiters occuring at a late time often indicate the presence of moisture in the substrate.
Blooming Cloudy, hazy, chalking, gloss variation or oily film on the coated surface (surface bloom). Cloudiness, opacity, ghosting, milkiness within the coating (within coating bloom)
Blush Milky-white appearance of surface coating materials usually caused by contamination.
Bond Adhesion or grip of coating materials to the surface.
Bubble Common problem that can easily be avoided by use of the correct product and proper surface preparation process. Air Bubbles are trappe air or gases below the drived surface coating materials and need to be released prior to being cured. Air Bubbles created by coating materials when drying too fast due to extreme temperatues, surface prepared inadequataly or materials applied too thick or incorrect.
Build Measured in micron and define the nature of coating materials. Epoxy Coating can be applid High-Build for special applications. 1000micron is equivalent to 1Lt/sqm (PourOn Application and Notch Squeegee followed by back rolling). 300micron is equivalent to 0.3Lt/sqm (Roller Application)
Chalking Defect caused by deterioration of concrete surface or degradation of surface coating materials resulting in formation of loose, soft and powdery substances.
Combustible Paper, cardboads, certain hydrocarbons like Mineral Oil and those susbtances that are not considered as flammable materials, due to their high Flash Points (over 77C°). However, extra care should be taken when using or handling.
Coverage The sqm or sqf a resin can cover per coat.
Coving A concave curved surface between the wall and ceiling of a room to ensure better hygiene and easy clean-up. Commonly used in commercial food processing plants, café and restaurants.
Criscross
Crosshatching Rolling in alternate directions to ensures complete coverage of the coating materials.
Cure Time Time requied for coating materials to complete the cure process and achieve ultimate hardness.
Curing Chemical reaction taking place when a two pack Epoxy, Polyurea or Polyurethane are mixed, the completion time of this reaction to reach certain hardness is called curing time.
Curring Compound Or Hardener, is normally Part B of Coating Kit, once added to Part A (Resin), it reacts exothermically to cure and harden.
Deep Cast PourOn or Casting deep for certain applications
Delamination Separation of a coating materials from a substrate or the layers of a coating from each other due to poor adhesion inadequate bonding.
Delamination Delamination is the detachment of a thin (typically from 3mm to 6 mm in thickness) surface layer from the rest of the slab. It is initially manifested by a ‘drummy’ sound when the pavement is tapped or trafficked.
Densifier Densifier or Impregnator is penetrating alkaline solution which reacts with lime to harden, solidify and densify the surface. Recommended for Polished concrete and provide extra protection from water penetration and staining. Usually applied aftr surface grouting.
Density Mass of a unit volume of a substance
Diluent Thinner or blend of solvent assisting in viscosity reduction
Dry Film Thickness (DFT) The final thickness of a cured coating measured in micron. Dry Film Thickness (DFT) = Wet Film Thickness (micron) X %Volume Solids. For example, if we use Premium Tinted Epoxy 100% Solid, at a rate of 1Lt/sqm, you get 1000micron thickness and DFT is 1000Micron X 100% = 1000 Micron DFT
Dry Tack-Free Once application is complete and the coating material commences curing process, at a point of time that the surface doesn’t feel sticky or tacky, defined as Dry Tack-Free time. For examle, Premium Tinted Epoxy has a Dry Tack-Free time frame of 8 hours after application at 25°C.
Efflorescence “Off-white crystalline deposit of salts caused by soluble calcium hydroxide, or lime leaches from the concrete body into the surface and reats with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce Calcium Carbonate Salt. White deposits of Calcium Carbonate can be particularly noticable on coloured concrete, especially darker tones. The source of Efflorescence should be identified, rectified and the white crystalline deposits shall be removed prior to any epoxy coating application, otherwise delamination and peeling may occur in future. Use diluted hydrochloric acid followed by detergetn wash and thorough rinsing.
Film Forming Coating Coating materials to form a surface film. All Epoxy coating are film forming and could be applied at high build of any thickness. For example, Premium Tinted Epoxy can be applied at over 2L/sqm, 2000micron thickness for special applications.
Film Thickness The depth of the film when wet (wet film thickness) and the final deth when dry (dry film thickness). Typically measured in mils (1milimiter = 1000Micron), typical piece of paper = 10mils, typical credit card = 120mils
Fish Eyes Usually caused by surface contaminanation and lack of wetting agent or surfactants. Fish eys is a surface defect also know as cratering, crowling, spots, pin-holes, or flow marks. A
Gloss Meter An instrument for measuring reflection gloss of a finished surface.
Grinding A rotary machine with diamond shoes and abrasive stones to remove concrete top layer surface and possible paint or coating materials. Idela mechanical technique for surface preparation prior to coating application.
High Build Coating Coating materials applied at high volume producing a thick film. PourOn application with notch squeegee followed by high nap backroll application.
High Solid Presence of high solid ingredients and lower percentage of volatile matter.
Hygrometer An instrument for measuring the degree of humidity in the atmosphere.
Impact Test A standard test for measuring the resistance of surfac coating materials to shattering of a dried film by dropping a known weight onto the finish surface.
Laitance on a newly laid concrete sometimes water and moisture seep and move upwards to surfce, causing formation of a thin layer of fine, loosely bonded whiteish particles on the surface called “Laitance”. Laitance must be removed before application of a any coating materials.
Membrane Any thin coat of protective materials typically made of acrylic, polyurea, polyurethane or epoxy applied over floor surface.
Micron A unit measure of thickness, each millimeter is 1000 micron.
Mineral Spirits A hydrocarbone based solvent used as a thinner and/or cleaner. Combustible Liquid.
Moisture Vapour Transmission As the temperature rises, the migration of moisture vapour to the surface of a concret slab increases and can potentially cause surface failure when impermeable coating materials are applied.
MSDS Developed by SHIMICOT R&D TEAM, a safety data sheet containing the necessary safety information you need to know prior to use or handling. It stands for Material Safety Data Sheet, and each product of SHIMICOAT has its relevant MSDS. Please read MSDS prior to use or handling of any product.
Nap The thickness of the raised hairs or threads on the surface of a roller sleeve is called NAP, measured in mm, for example 10 or 20mm Nap Roller Sleeves
Neutal pH A mild (pH = 6-8) that does not contain strongly alkaline or acidic materials.
Neutralise Application of Hydrochloric Acid (dilueted by 10times) on a concrete surface of high pH, followed by washing with general purpose detergent or cloudy ammonia or soda solution (Sodium Carbonate/Bicarbonate). Ideal pH is 7.0 (neutral), but a pH range of 6.0-8.0 is acceptable for most coating applications.
Orange Peel Sometimes the finish surface appears to be non-smooth with pattern similar to the surface of an orange. There are many reasons for Orange Peel effect. Rolling a finish surface that is already cured excessively freezing the roller pattern in the film. May also be caused by excessive airflow, the velocity of which freezes waves in the film when it sets. Incompatibility of the topcoat and underlay basecoats or the basecoat itself with substrate.
Packing Density The degree of compactness of a powder or weight of one litre of powder substance. Some materials like Super Ceramic has low packing density of 0.3kg/Lt and some like sand has 1.5Kg/Lt.
Penetrating Coating Materials Coating system with the ability to penetrate into the concrete surface to increase water repellency and resist stains. Often used on polished and docorative concrete to provide invisible protection without changing the surface appearance.
Permeability Passage, seepage or penetration of a liquid or gas thorugh a surface.
pH Value A measure of Acidity or Alkalinity of a water based system. A pH value of 7 is considered neutral. Lower values are acidit; higher values are alkaline.
Pin Holing A defect in a surface coating appears as small pinhead-sized holes that expose the underlaying substrate.
Porosity Refer to surface containing pores to make it an absobant surface. We recommend concrete surface grinding or acid-etch washing to increase surface porosity. Surface porosity can easily be tested by placing a few droplets of water on the surface. If it absorbed, it is poror, if it beads off, it is a smooth and non-porous surface.
Pot Life Working time of 2Pack resins like Epoxy, Polyurethane and Polyurea (Part A and Part B). A measure of time from the moment the product is mixed to the moment the product is set and cured to the point that impossible to apply into the surface. Pot life can act as a guide in determinign working life by providing a rough timeline of product consistancy, flowability and viscosity.
Pot life Pot life is the amount of time it takes for a mixed two pack resins to increase to set and become unusable. It is also known as the working time or useable life.
Primer The first coat of material applied to a concrete surface to improve bonding or adherence of subsequent coats. Primer has stronge bonding ability into substrate as well as into the topcoat materials.
PSI Unit of measurement for pressure “Pour Per Square Inch”.
PSI Pour per Square Inch or PSI is a unit of pressure
R&D Stands for Research and Development, an integrated department of SHIMICOAT focusing on products quality, ultimate performance and compliance. Also know as R&TD which stands for Research and Technolog Development responsible for new inovations and cutting edge technology.
Re-Coat Window Time window in which successive coats of material can be applied to the previous coat. When materials applied outside the re-coat window, adhesion failures may occur. For example, the Re-Coat Window for Epoxy is 72 hours, if applied within 72 hours, the product can be applied directly. However, if the successive coat applies later than 72 hours, surface sanding may be reqired to roughen the surface to enhance inter-coat bonding ability.
Sacrificial Coating A final floor finish or wax engineered to protec the sealer or topcoat from wear while it is new and in process of hardening.
Scrubbbing Use of moderately abrasive non-woven pad or harsh brush, either by hand or attached to a low-speed floor machine, to vigorously agitate the wet surface. Scrubbing is applied when a floor is heavily soiled, and normal cleaning methods have been uncussessful. Flush the surface completely after scrubbing.
Shot Blasting An abrasive blasting machine using round ball iorn shots to clean bombard the floor and profile concrete surfaces.
Solid Content The relative weight content of the totla product which is not water or volatile compounds.
Spall Flaking and chipping of concrete often caused by combination of freezing temperatures and imporper mixing and creaming of concrete during placement is called concrete spalling, also know as concrete scaling. It is a defect that needs to be rectified prior to any coating application.
Specific Gravity Or Relative Density is the ratio of the density (mass of a unit volume) of a substance to the density of a given reference material. For liquid the reference is generally water. Specific Gravity or Relative Density of water is one (1g/mL, 1Kg/Lt or 1000g/Lt).
Substrate Floor surface that is to be coated by coating materials.
Tack The stickiness or adhesiveness of a material is called tack.
TDS Developed by SHIMICOAT R&D team, technical Data Sheet (TDS) is a document containing product information such as physical and chemical properties, features and benefits, product description, application method, coverage and other important information to know prior to use and handling of the product. SHIMICOAT has one TDS for every product.
Thin Film Set Once thin application is complete and the coating material complete curing process and harden to form a thin film, at a point of time that the surface is dry, defined as Thin Film Set. For examle, Premium Tinted Epoxy has a Thin Film Set time frame of 16 hours after application at 25°C.
Ultraviolet Ultraviolet or UV light rays are invisible spectrum at its violet end with higher frequency and higher energy than visible spectrum. These rays have detrimental effect on certian coating and finishing materials.
Viscosity A measure of flow and fluidity of a liqid material. The more visocisty a material such as a epoxy coating materials, the less it flows.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Organic chemicals that are volatile and readily vaporise at room temperatures. VOCs are normally considered as hazardous and those coating materials containing VOCs, should be handled with care and used in well ventilated area.
Xylene Highly flammable hydrocarbon solvent containing aromatic benzyne ring. Xylene used as a thinner for epoxy and solvent based sealers. Xylene is ideal for cleaning tools as well. It contains over 80% VOC.
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